|The Dakota attack New Ulm, Minnesota, Aug. 19, 1862|
—Gen. Robert E. Lee still intends to send a cavalry raid behind Pope’s army and destroy the only bridge across the Rappahannock—the Yankees’ only retreat. Ironically, on the evening of the 18th, Federal cavalry raids Stuart’s temporary headquarters and nearly captures him. While deliberating and waiting for Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee’s lost brigade to find its way back to Stuart’s headquarters for this task, Pope is suddenly spooked and, during the previous night, manages to pull his entire army of 50,000 back across the Rappahannock, in spite of confused marching orders and a traffic snarl of supply wagons. Lee see that his opportunity is lost. But this night, he puts his own army on the road in the moonlight.
—Capt. William Bolton of the 51st Pennsylvania Infantry details Pope’s nighttime march with his personal experience:
—Horace Greeley, the wildly inconsistent and yet influential editor of the New York Tribune, writes a letter to Pres. Lincoln and publishes it in his paper as "A Prayer of Twenty Millions," wherein he chides Lincoln for being too soft on slavery. Greeley begins by pointing out how he is "sorely disappointed and deeply pained" by the leniency with which the President has dealt with the Rebels and with slaveholders in general. "Slavery is everywhere the inciting cause and sustaining base of treason: the most slaveholding sections of Maryland and Delaware being this day, though under the Union flag, in full sympathy with the Rebellion." Greeley believes most of the legislature of Maryland to be secretly in support of the Rebellion. "It is the duty of a Government so wantonly, wickedly assailed by Rebellion as ours has been to oppose force to force in a defiant, dauntless spirit." He charges many of the officers of the Army with being in sympathy with slavery, and that they do not aggressively carry out the laws of the Confiscation Acts. "We complain that you, Mr. President, elected as a Republican, . . . seem never to interfere with these atrocities, and never give a direction to your Military subordinates, which does not appear to have been conceived in the interest of Slavery rather than of Freedom." Greeley concludes with this:
—On the Peninsula in Virginia, Robert Knox Sneden, a Federal soldier on the III Corps staff, observes that McClellan’s retreat goes slowly—that "our marches don’t average six miles per day, though we could make fifteen if required. But McClellan is taking things easy though Pope is badly in want of reenforcements. And it is in a critical position with the enemy confronting him in superior numbers. . . . " Camped near Williamsburg, Sneden notes the clear signs of destruction of the battle all around him, including the "heavy undergrowth of weeds and vines covered all the ground outside the main fort, among which, graves with staked at their heads were numerous." Then, he includes this ghastly detail without a qualm or tremor:
—Charles Wright Wills, a young officer of the 8th Illinois Infantry Regiment in occupied Alabama, reflects the shocking and fairly rampant racism found in most of the ranks of the Union Army, as he records them in his journal:
—Gen. Ulysses S. Grant writes to his sister and, among other things, relates his somewhat different view of the "contrabands" who flock to the Northern armies:
I don’t know what is to become of these poor people in the end but it weakening the enemy to take them.
—Sarah Morgan, staying at a friend’s house—the Carter family—west of the Mississippi River in Louisiana, relates in her journal an experience when some very dirty but polite Confederate soldiers come to the house to ask for redfreshment:
—Captain William Thompson Lusk, a Union officer currently serving at headquarters of Gen. Stevens’ division, IX Corps, under Gen. Burnside, writes home to his mother of his disgust with Pope’s orders to the troops to live off the land, in the process apparently protesting a certain newspaper—probably Greeley’s Tribune: